Objective studies address measurable trends across space and time.
Things that can be objectively measured include
– requirements for clean air, water
– safe, healthy food propagation
– available and reliable energy for modern operations
1. observed correlation between high concentrations of unemployed, low
skilled and ethnic minorities to high levels of overcrowding, amenity deficient
housing and out-migration.
2. Examination of urban cores in most cities of the United
States shows degradation as a result of a declining fiscal base and deteriorating
Subjective studies measure reported life satisfaction, and can in turn also
measure perceptions of the physical properties that objective studies measure.
What objective studies cannot capture, however, is how some aspects of well being can be independent from direct influence from the physical world.
Anecdotal evidence for these studies
– highly rated life outlooks in impoverished communities
– scenarios where people are unaware of their environment’s degradation
– drinking contaminated groundwater
Some subjective metrics try to measure:
with valuation schemas
– hedonism, dialectical perspectives, humanism and formalism
or with categorical schemas
– livability, character, connection, mobility and diversity.