Universal Models

-World Health Organization (WHO)
six factors that span the physical and psychological realms of life quality:

  – the physical domain (measures pain, energy and sleep)

  – the psychological domain (measures positive feelings, concentration,   self esteem, body image and negative feelings)

  – the independence domain (measures mobility, activities of daily living,

  medication and work capacity)

  – the social domain (relationships, social support and sexual activity)

  – the environment domain (safety, home, finances, social care, new

  information, leisure, environment, transport)

  – the spiritual domain which has only one factor, spiritual

The cyclical model (security is to the left of health on the wheel)

    based also around six components:

  – health (mental and physical)

  – physical environment (nuisance, visual perception and scenic quality, climate,   pollution)

  – natural resources goods and services (natural resources, goods, social   infrastructure and services)

  – community development (community structure, social networks and

  group relations, political participation)

  – personal development (individual development through recreation, leisure,   through learning)

  – security (personal economic security and standard of living, housing,   administration of justice crime and safety).


Greater Holistic Ecosystem Model

  – the bio-ecological subsystem

  – the technological/architectural subsystem

  – the human perceptual/ behavioral subsystem.


 Well Being

predictors of well-being

  – self-esteem

  – feeling in control of one’s life

  – optimism

  – extraversion

  – supportive friendships

  – a satisfying love life

  – challenging work

  -a framework in which one’s life makes sense

All factors weighted to sum overall life satisfaction.

Maslow (1954) Hierarchy of Needs





  love and belonging


  self actualization


  Almost all needs models have physiological needs as the foundation, because thoughts on world peace are hard to digest when the stomach is empty.